It is well documented that irregular migration is closely connected with serious human rights violations and exploitation, most notably trafficking in human beings and human smuggling, and often acts as a catalyst for further victimization as it places individuals in a particularly vulnerable situation by creating the necessary conditions for coercion and exploitation. This section intends to provide up to date information, materials and any relevant activities and initiatives trying to examine trafficking and irregular migration as interrelated factors of victimisation and exploitation of vulnerable groups.